While various good texts are available covering many aspects of WPC and NFC production, design and use (Klyosov, 2007; Oksman Niska and Sain, 2008; Pickering, 2008), this chapter will provide a broad introduction to these materials, and their main features. Neat polymers are polymerized without added solvents. Wood itself contains polymers such as lignin, cellulose, and various hemicelluloses but has very different properties from the synthetic polymers with which it is most often combined. Buckling typically results from an improper installation of a composite deck – causing a prolonged contact with water (from outside or from inside of deckboards, such as for hollow boards), lack of proper gapping, etc. Polymers are high molecular weight materials whose performance is largely determined by its molecular architecture. WPC in a sandwich-structured composite form allows for a combination of the benefits of traditional wood polymer composites with the lightness of a sandwich panel technology. The inclusion of plastic as a portion of the composite results in the potential for higher fire hazards in WPCs as compared with wood. Sawdust from fiber fillers like pulp, peanut hulls, and bamboo are mixed with new or waste plastic powder, from composite plastic materials such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Wood plastic composite (WPC composite, or composite lumbar) is a hybrid material composed of natural wood and plastic fiber. The foam density (ρf) can be calculated as: where M and V are the mass and the volume of WPC foam sample, respectively. Examples: amendment of the packaging ordinance and end-of-life ordinance, ban on the impregnation of wood with CCA salts in the USA. The discovery that this natural fibre composite (NFC) material was easily produced, reduced tool wear, and was rapidly accepted by the Tier 1 producers of automotive components led to rapid transfer from marques seeking an unique green selling point to almost the full range of motor manufacturers. The density reduction can be further improved by the addition of an all-acrylic processing aid in the formulation of rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams. For example, the induced microcells that are smaller than the pre-existing flaws can serve as crack arrestors by offering a blunt edge to propagating crack tips, thereby greatly enhancing toughness (Suh, 1996). Properties of extrusion-foamed rigid PVC/wood-flour composites. Polyethylene-based WPCs are by far the most common. A WPC member can be bent and fixed to form strong arching curves. It will then also review the current market worldwide, and likely future developments within the sector. There is not much difference between SPC and WPC in terms of what designs each one offers. In the early days of WPC development, one of the essential drivers was the automotive industry. Various research activities span the decades which passed before the sector gained momentum in the 1990s, for example, seeing fourfold growth between 1997 and 2000. Here the injection moulding technique has the biggest application potential compared with other techniques. Water absorption accelerates mold growth because water is a necessary component for microbial life. From Equations 11.3 and 11.4, the average cell size d can be determined as (Matuana et al., 1997): Compared with the conventional foam products, microcellular plastics with a cell size less than 10 μm and a cell density higher than 109 cells/cm3 demonstrate better properties. November 7, 2020 3:39 PM Subscribe. Matuana, N.M. Stark, in Biofiber Reinforcements in Composite Materials, 2015. WPCs, as a lumber substitute in several outdoor applications, have already captured a noticeable market share; and there appears to be no compelling reason why this trend should cease. Ibach et al. It has also been shown that these composites can be engineered to withstand significant environmental and structural loads. Manufacturers claim that wood-plastic composite is more environmentally friendly and requires less maintenance than the alternatives of solid wood treated with preservatives or solid wood of rot-resistant species. Sawdust, pulp, bamboo, peanut hulls and unused woodworking materials, like bark, from a variety of projects, are combined with plastic powder to form WPC. (1972) modeled the influence of moisture on the creep response of a polyester resin by using a time–moisture superposition method (analogous to the TTS) in which creep curves obtained at different humidity contents were superposed by shifting them in logarithmic timescale. , The environmental impact of WPCs is directly affected by the ratio of renewable to non-renewable materials. However, after a decade of exterior use in the construction industry, questions have arisen regarding durability. Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) Another major selling point of these materials is their lack of need for paint. Research has shown that WPCs possess structural performance comparable to that of some lumber products. “Synthetic Decking”, Morrell, J et al. Though wood does not shrink and swell much with temperature, it readily absorbs moisture, which alters its properties and dimensions and can lead to bio-degradation if not protected. Material property assessments are useful for product development activities, but carry little significance in the marketplace. The Terratek ® WC line of wood-plastic composites combines the pleasing look of wood with the functionality and manufacturing ease of plastics. Sources of further information are listed at the end of the chapter. This has allowed considerable cross-over between the two disciplines, meaning that WPC products using biopolymers or biodegradable polymers have also been launched. WPCs are a subset of a larger category of materials called natural fiber plastic composites (NFPCs), which may contain no cellulose-based fiber fillers such as pulp fibers, peanut hulls, coffe husk, bamboo, straw, digestate, etc. The mid-1990s saw the introduction of composite decking boards manufactured with wood chips and recycled plastic. Table 14.4. Owing to wood shortages on the world market, demand will increase for other renewable resource materials that do not exclusively consist of wood, Petrochemical products were the focus of the R&D efforts in the past 50 years. USWPC's products are Eco friendly, higher quality and lower maintenance with superior performance and pricing. Single extrusion solid composite wood screening boards, pre-finished so no oiling or painting required and very low ongoing maintenance. When the material is immersed, water fills this void volume. When WPC boards absorb water, they swell. Typically, materials that have moisture content of 19% or lower do not support the growth of mold.  WPCs have good workability and can be shaped using conventional woodworking tools. On a political level, natural materials should urgently be acknowledged as CO2 repositories, possibly giving another impetus to WPC. Wood plastic composite (WPC) is a material that looks similar to wood and has all the superlative properties of plastic. The total moisture content of WPC components on soaking was thought to be approximately 10% – which is well below the threshold for decay. (2004) studied microcellular foamed PVC–wood fiber composites and found that tensile and impact properties of microcellular foamed PVC–wood fiber composites were most sensitive to changes in the cell morphology and the surface modification of fibers. WPC merupakan kepanjangan dari wood plastic composite, yang secara bahasa dapat diartikan sebagai komposit kayu plastik. The important point is to develop performance measures that relate to actual in-service conditions.  The wood particles are susceptible to fungal attack, though not as much so as solid wood, and the polymer component is vulnerable to UV degradation. The new impetus was provided by the twin aims of exchanging petrochemical materials for increased bioderived sustainable materials; and the need to reduce waste to landfill and explore recycling technologies. WPC materials will absorb variable amounts of moisture, some more, some less.  The mechanical performance in a wet environment can be enhanced by an acetylation treatment. An example of its use in long-term creep of wood lumber can be found in the work of Tissaoui (1996). There is considerable technological backlog in the field of the establishment and optimisation of new products and processes of renewable resources, Regulations can create markets and promote them respectively, but also restrict them; in many cases even cost-neutral for the legislature (without tax or aid expenditure). These questions are based on documented evidence of failures in the field of WPC decking products due to such impacts as polymer degradation (Klyosov, 2005), wood decay (Morris and Cooper, 1998), and susceptibility to mold which negatively impact the aesthetic qualities of the product. WPC is splinter free with a bevel edged, double sided wood grain embossed finish, available in … The global Wood Plastic Composite market size was valued at USD 4.06 billion in 2015. In addition to wood fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other ligno-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials. Foamed samples were produced in a continuous extrusion process using CO2 as a blowing agent (Matuana and Diaz, 2013). Many trials of In some manufacturing facilities, the constituents are combined and processed in a pelletizing extruder, which produces pellets of the new material.