âUnderstoodâ as used above includes Understood For All Inc., and their officers, affiliates, parents, and related entities, and their respective employees, contractors, or other personnel. This website provides information of a general nature and is designed for information and educational purposes only and does not constitute medical or legal advice. The way forward, I fear, is a controversial one: I would scrap the word “differentiation… That includes students who have Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) or 504 plans. The process of how the material in a lesson is learned may be differentiated for students based on their learning styles, taking into account what standards of performance are required for the age level. This eliminates the need for pre-assessment and is useful for teachers with large class loads, such as in high school (Nunley, 2004). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. The teacher views the student more broadly, specifically in relation to students of the same age and in light of developmental benchmarks. One source includes Mike Schmoker of Education Week, who claims that after a lengthy email exchange with an architect of DI, she conceded "There [is] no solid research or school evidence" in support of DI. Pre-assessments should be conducted several weeks before the unit of study and should not be graded.  Delivery of instruction in the past often followed a "one size fits all" approach. Consistent program review and diagnosis of whole-class and individual student responses not only provides ongoing feedback to enhance teaching and learning for teachers but students and parents as well. Forty years ago, Tomlinson says, the focus was on individualized instruction. Understood is a nonprofit initiative. The teacher would then give each group a series of questions, based on each group's appropriate level of readiness-skills, related to the objectives of the lesson. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible … Assessment for learning not only includes diagnostic or pre-assessment measures but also formative assessment. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Many teachers use areas of Multiple Intelligences to provide learning opportunities. Create Tiered Lessons. Differentiated Instruction: What You Need to Know, By The combination of the wide-angle lens viewpoint of the teacher with the close up lens of the parents results in a fuller picture for everyone. This information is stored temporarily, and the brain decides what to do with the acquired data. But it doesnât require an individual approach for each student. It is best to begin by seeking out the wisdom of other educators who have experience with differentiated instruction, ground your own … In any general education classroom, there are students with various learning styles. It can work well in general education classes that include students with learning and thinking differences.  The teacher's goal is to create an environment that is positive, structured, and supportive for each student. Differentiated Instruction: What You Need to Know, difference between individualized instruction and differentiated instruction. While significant research has shown the effectiveness of product based differentiated instruction at primary and secondary level, effective use has also been demonstrated in higher education in some circumstances.. Differentiation is the process by which teachers adapt, modify, or change their teaching styles and methods in order to meet the needs of all students. "How" a teacher plans to deliver the instruction is based on assessment results that show the needs, learning styles, interests, and levels of prior knowledge. IEP Instructional activities are flexible and based and evaluated on content, process, product, and learning environment. Students could have a choice to work in pairs, groups, or individually, but all students are working towards the same standards and objectives. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Content: Figuring out what a student needs to learn and which resources will help him do so, Process: Activities that help students make sense of what they learn, Projects: A way for students to âshow what they knowâ, Learning environment: How the classroom âfeelsâ and how the class works together. Heacox, D. (2002). The content of lessons may be differentiated based on what students already know. Differentiated instruction teacher's guide: Getting to the core of teaching and learning. The topic researched is Inclusive learning, looking also into differentiation, and leaning styles. As much as possible, the goals and the respective success criteria should … Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. The product is an integral component of the differentiated model, as preparation of the assessments determines both the ‘what' and ‘how' of instruction delivery.  For instance, when teaching a literary piece, the teacher first decides the goal and how the students will be assessed to determine if such goal is achieved. When teachers differentiate content, they may adapt what they want students to learn or how students access the knowledge, understanding, and skills (Anderson, 2007). Progressive tasks. Pre-assessments can gather information about each student's strengths, comforts, or areas of weakness.  This information is pertinent to differentiation, which can activate multiple senses and thus have a greater impact on the brain. It can work well in … Teachers who use differentiated instruction tailor their teaching approach to match their studentsâ learning styles. Commonalities in the assessment results lead to grouping practices that are designed to meet the students' needs. But teachers discovered that creating an individual learning plan for each student in a class wasnât realistic. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Washington, DC: Mindsteps. The Five Dimensions of Differentiation Sally M. Reis and Joseph S. Renzulli University of Connecticut “True differentiation … According to Tomlinson (2003), "Environment will support or deter the student's quest for affirmation, contribution, power, purpose, and challenge in the classroom," (p. (see external links below). âUnderstoodâ and related logos are trademarks of Understood For All Inc. Earl, L. (2003). Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Differentiated lessons reflect the teacher's best understanding of what will best help a child to grow in understanding and skill at a given moment. What is differentiated instruction. In differentiated instruction, teachers respond to students' readiness, instructional needs, interests and learning preferences and provide opportunities for students to work in varied instructional formats. Here are several examples of differentiation strategy that can be used in your classroom. Differentiated instruction is a way of teaching that matches a variety of learning styles. Assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources such as assignments, teacher observations, class discussions, and tests and quizzes. Continual assessment: Teachers regularly monitor studentsâ strengths and weaknesses (in both formal and informal ways) to make sure theyâre progressing well in their knowledge and mastery of schoolwork. teaching strategies and techniques that help struggling learners. An important part of differentiated instruction and assessment is determining what students already know so as not to cover material students have mastered, or use methods that would be ineffective for students. Students can bring both strengths and weaknesses to the activity and work together for the benefit of … Their position is that learning occurs not at the individual level or to the individual but within the individuals students as they are engaged in exploring concepts. Below we’ve gathered a list of 50 differentiation strategies. Differentiating by process refers to how a student comes to understand and assimilate facts, concepts and skills (Anderson, 2007). For several decades now, differentiation has been on many school districts’ lists of prioritized initiatives. Regardless of whether the differentiation of instruction is based upon student readiness, interests, or needs, the dynamic flow of grouping and regrouping is one of the foundations of differentiated instruction. . In heterogeneously grouped classrooms, for example, teachers vary instructional str… He argues that students would be better served if teachers could teach in a number of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means. Differentiating through the environment is important as it creates the conditions for optimal learning to take place. Learn more about checklists, quizzes, class discussion, portfolios, entry/exit cards, anticipation guides, journals, self-reflections). This stage of differentiation allows students to learn based either on what method is easiest for them to gain knowledge, or what may challenge them most: some students may prefer to read about a topic (or may require practice in reading), and others may prefer to listen (or require practice in listening), or acquire knowledge by manipulating objects associated with the content.  Differentiation stems from beliefs about differences among learners, how they learn, learning preferences, and individual interests (Algozzine & Anderson, 2007). Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. We adjust the goals, materials, and environment to meet the individual needs of our learners. (2007). Another way to group the students could be based on the students' learning styles. Each student has a preferred learning style, and successful differentiation … If your child has an IEP or 504 plan, ask his general education teacher how she uses differentiated instruction to meet his needs. note, "the literature fails to provide adequate support for applying learning-style assessments in school settings. This instructional approach and choice of content are driven by the data from students' assessment results and from the outcomes of other screening tools. Instead, the teacher personalizes her teaching to help the student meet those goals and objectives. Special educators have delivered differentiated instruction for decades. changes in what they understand. It doesnât replace the goals and objectives in a childâs Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design. As you already know, fundamental lesson content should cover the standards of learning set by the school... 2. Differentiated instruction is not the same as individualized instruction. Share Another example would be including visuals, maps, or graphic organizers to introduce or reinforce concepts as opposed to only providing written or oral text.  The learning environment includes the physical layout of the classroom, the way that the teacher uses the space, environmental elements and sensitivities including lighting, as well as the overall atmosphere of the classroom. . sight, sound, smell) or by creating cross-curricular connections. The product is essentially what the student produces at the end of the lesson to demonstrate the mastery of the content: tests, evaluations, projects, reports, or other activities. Because differences are our greatest strength. We do not market to or offer services to individuals in the European Union. Thames Valley District School Board. This information can be gathered through diagnostic (pre-assessments), formative, and summative assessments, as well as Individual Education Plans, Ontario Student Record… 37). For more Differentiation is commonly used in heterogeneous groupingan educational strategy in which students of different abilities, learning needs, and levels of academic achievement are grouped together. Differentiation refers to a wide variety of teaching techniques and lesson adaptations that educators use to instruct a diverse group of students, with diverse learning needs, in the same course, classroom, or learning environment. is a freelance writer and editor and a former deputy managing editor forUSA Today. Psychological Science for the Public Interest, "REACH: A Framework for Differentiating Classroom Instruction", http://www.tvdsb.ca/programs.cfm?subpage=91423, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "REACH: A framework for differentiating classroom instruction", Differentiated Instruction Resources from ASCD, Information on developing RAFT activities, Differentiated Instruction – Reading Rockets and American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Differentiating for High Ability Students – Lesson Planet, A journal paper describing how differentiated lab exercises were used to teach undergraduates programming, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Differentiated_instruction&oldid=985778604, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2008, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. They use different texts, novels, or short stories at a reading level appropriate for each individual student. Formative assessments are used during a unit to provide understanding about what the student is learning, and continually guide instructional decisions. , UbD is described as a backward design model that emphasizes the beginning with the end in mind. (2001). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. Smets, W. and Struyven,K. Avoid using one text for the entire class. " In Psychological Science for the Public Interest, Pashler et al. Differentiated instruction, on the other hand, uses several learning approaches. (2018), Aligning with complexity: system-theoretical principles for research on differentiated instruction, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 22:11. is an instructor in the department of special education at Hunter College. difference between individualized instruction and differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction, according to Carol Ann Tomlinson, is the process of "ensuring that what a student learns, how he or she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he or she has learned is a match for that student's readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning. All students have access to the curriculum in a variety of ways. Scaffolding, however, is a lesser mentioned word in education… Virginia: ASCD. Assessment of learning is the culminating task or summative assessment, which takes place after the learning has occurred and students can show what concepts and/or skills they learned. … (2006). A teacher uses differentiated instruction to give every student multiple paths to learning. Retrieved Wednesday, October 24, 2012 from. Differentiation is a keyword we tend to hear a lot these days in the world of education. " Differentiation can be used when applying, demonstrating, extending knowledge, or practising skills and attitudes to monitor achievement of goals. Information may be presented in multiple ways by the teacher, and may be based on any available methods or materials.  Differentiation can also be used here through a variety of strategies such as tests, projects, demonstrations, writing performances, and more. Differentiated instruction and assessment, also known as differentiated learning or, in education, simply, differentiation, is a framework or philosophy for effective teaching that involves providing all students within their diverse classroom community of learners a range of different avenues for understanding new information (often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring content; processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in their ability.  This might reach more students and improve content retention. " Teachers can differentiate in four ways: 1) through content, 2) process, 3) product, and 4) learning environment based on the individual learner. Special education classes are almost always smaller than regular education … Differentiated instruction allows students to show what they know in different ways.  This can be achieved by using several senses (i.e. This makes the whole learning experience more effective. Apparently I must use a variety of methods at every turn and I must present every topic and idea through a variety of … The goal of differentiated instruction is to develop engaging tasks that challenge and enhance learning for each student. Teachers should be sensitive and alert to ways that the classroom environment supports students' ability to interact with others individually, in small groups, and as a whole class. & McTighe, J. And find out more about the By signing up, you acknowledge that you reside in the United States and are at least 13 years old, and agree that you've read the Terms and Conditions. The goal of RTI is to spot learning problems early. This can include teaching students in small groups or in one-on-one sessions. It is possible for teachers to set separate work or exercises to different students … The parent, on the other hand, has a deeper sense of the student's interests, feelings, and changes over time. Ferlazzo and Hull Sypnieski offer tips on differentiating instruction for English-language learners. Lessons may be on inquiry based, problem based and project based instruction. The more of these stimuli that are activated, the more impact the data has on the brain. (2007). response to intervention Effective differentiation takes place when teachers adjust aspects of content, process and product in direct response to a student’s readiness, interests and learning profile. But in all cases, itâs an opportunity for students to learn from each other. Through differentiated … The workshops I facilitate are typically not teachers’ first professional learning on … EL Education believes that no matter which component of instruction a teacher chooses to differentiate for students, effective differentiation is built on a foundation of engaging, relevant, student-friendly learning targets that clearly define expectations for learning. Instead, use multiple texts at … The physical environment should be a place that is flexible with varied types of furniture and arrangements, and areas for quiet individual work as well as areas for group work and collaboration.  Chapman and King (2005) note that when "teachers strategically administer pre-assessments before planning their lessons, they can address the students' strengths and needs during instruction. Differentiated instruction allows students to show what they know in different ways. Copyright Â© 2014â2020 Understood For All Inc. All rights reserved. Students have âmultiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn,â she explains. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence test, or Visual, Auditory, or Kinesthetic learner), and 2) by identifying knowledge of student understandings (i.e. All these ongoing assessments help the teacher know students and their needs so they can select effective teaching and learning strategies and interventions that maximize student achievement. The goal of pre-assessment is to determine a student's knowledge, understanding and skill prior to the unit of study. Ministry of Education. That understanding evolves as the course continues, as the child develops, and as parents contribute to teachers' understanding. Research-based strategies to ignite student learning: Insights from a neurologist and classroom teacher. When an educator differentiates by product or performance, they are affording students various ways of demonstrating what they have learned from the lesson or unit (Anderson, 2007; Nunley, 2006). Geri Coleman Tucker However, it can be done for all students. . For example, students who are unfamiliar with the concepts may be required to complete tasks on the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Differentiation benefits students across the learning continuum, including students who are highly able and gifted. Four ways to differentiate instruction 1. In recent years, computational intelligence algorithms have been used for the effective formation of heterogeneous student groups, with the members of each having homogeneous characteristics of skills, difficulties, psychosocial or cognitive profiles, emerging from the holistic assessment of the student’s particular characteristics and needs.. This leads to appropriate differentiation that accommodates each student's learning needs and preferences.  The framework also recognizes the importance of assessment and employs evaluative or summative assessment models as the bases of grading.. Teachers use ongoing assessments to gather information about a student's knowledge and capabilities, to direct future planning, to monitor student progress, and to evaluate student achievement. After all, the rationale for enrolling students in special education is that in this setting, they will receive more individualized and specialized attention than would be available in regular education. They may do well at the adjusted work they are given. Struggling students are given extra support before they fall behind their peers.  Teachers can also determine, locate, and compile appropriate resources and decide timelines/priorities for upcoming units. This provides feedback for both teacher and student, with the ultimate goal of improving student learning. New York: Basic Books. Differentiation is about teaching and learning styles and teachers should be using all three types of differentiation in order to have a variety of teaching approaches to accommodate the different learning … ", Framework or philosophy for effective teaching, Helping parents learn about differentiated instruction. Differentiated Instruction (DI) is defined as the planning and delivery of classroom instruction that considers the varied levels of readiness, learning needs, and interests of each learner in the class. It is a classroom that includes and allows all students to be successful. A group can include a pair of students or a larger group. With techniques such as pairing up students and enhancing background knowledge, … is an instructor in the department of special education at Hunter College. This might include peer/ self-assessments, and peer/teacher conferences. That does not mean they should be given the same grade for their work, as the child who does not get an adjustment assignment. Differentiation is the way a teacher prepares instruction to meet the needs of all the children in an inclusive classroom, from the most challenged to the most gifted.Differentiating instruction is not only going to help your special education students fully participate, it will also enrich and improve the experience of the general education … As Physical Education teachers, it is our responsibility to make sure our lessons are barrier-free and meet the diverse needs of our students – this is most commonly known as differentiation[1,2]. Differentiation starts from the assessment of students' prior knowledge and skills and the setting of individual learning goals.  Differentiated classrooms have also been described as ones that respond to student variety in readiness levels, interests, and learning profiles. Tomlinson, C. A. An effective differentiation strategy is to group students heterogeneously, not homogeneously. . Virginia: ASCD. This approach works well with the Tomlinson, C.A. " Pre-assessment can be conducted in two ways: 1) by identifying learning preferences and interests (i.e. As Wolfe (2001) argues, information is acquired through the five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch and sound. It is meant to allow students to show what they learned based on their learning preferences, interests and strengths. “Inclusive education means all students in a school, regardless of their strengths, weaknesses, or disabilities, … They should employ classroom management techniques that support a safe and supportive learning environment. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing Inc. Jackson, R. (2008) The Differentiation Workbook: A Step-by-step guide to planning lessons that ensure that your students meet or exceed the standards. Reciprocal learning: Sometimes the student becomes the teacher, sharing what heâs learned and asking questions of his peers. or Students can learn from each other in differentiated instruction classrooms. Carol Ann Tomlinson, an educator who has done some of the most innovative work in this area, says there are four areas where teachers can differentiate instruction. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada. Examples of differentiated structures include Layered Curriculum, tiered instruction, tic-tac-toe extension menus, Curry/Samara models, RAFT writing activities, and similar designs. This supports a variety of ways to engage in flexible and dynamic learning. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. After teaching a lesson, a teacher might break students into small "ability" groups based on their readiness. and are used with permission. Hume, K. (2008). Based on students' skill levels and educational standards, teachers may assign students to complete activities that demonstrate mastery of an educational concept (writing a report), or in a method the student prefers (composing an original song about the content, or building a 3-dimensional object that explains mastery of concepts in the lesson or unit). Differentiation in the Real World As teachers, we often differentiate for our students. Tools for high quality differentiated instruction. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher closely assesses and monitors skills, knowledge levels, interests to determine effective ways for all students to learn; the teacher's lesson plan is drawn up with those various skills, levels, and interests in mind. (Nunley, 2004). Some students in a class may be completely unfamiliar with the concepts in a lesson, some students may have partial mastery of the content - or display mistaken ideas about the content, and some students may show mastery of the content before the lesson begins. Tomlinson, C. A. Process. Differentiation is rooted and supported by literature and research about the brain. Strickland, C. A. Further, Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences identified eight distinct intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. individual differences we observe in classrooms. There was an issue submitting your email address. Students must be assessed based on a standard rather than the level of assigned work. Gardner, H. (1983). The grouping practices must be flexible, as groups change with regard to the need that must be addressed. Chapman, C. And King, R. (2005). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom: Strategies and tools for responsive teaching.  Students vary in culture, socioeconomic status, language, gender, motivation, ability/disability, learning styles, personal interests and more, and teachers must be aware of these varieties as they plan in accordance with the curricula.  Teachers must assess regularly to inform instructional strategies, learn about each student's readiness, interests, and learning preferences and to improve student learning. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Moreover, several studies that used appropriate research designs found evidence that contradicted the learning-styles hypothesis...[W]e feel that the widespread use of learning-style measures in educational settings is unwise and a wasteful use of limited resources. Some learn best by reading and writing. Both of these types of pre-assessment are used to design student tasks, particularly when a student might require support, enrichment, or have different learning styles, intelligence, or interests. If there are too many students in a class, or if the teacher isnât experienced with this approach, the classroom can become distracting and chaotic. Instead of using a one-size-fits-all approach, a teacher uses a variety of methods to teach. (1999). This is very frequently done for students with special needs. All the students have the same learning goal. Learning preferences extends these ideas by effectively instructing a larger number of students to encourage the development of the less preferred style. When parents come to school and talk about their children, they share their perspectives with the teacher. Assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources such as assignments, teacher observations, class discussions, and tests and quizzes. The list of possible examples of differentiation taking place outside the classroom or done by non-teaching staff is almost endless. Summer DI Readings List: 150+ Seedlings for Growing Stronger Learners: Browse a bountiful reading list as you plan your garden of differentiated-instruction methods and strategies for the year. A differentiated classroom may "look different" from what parents expect. When more regions of the brain store data about a subject, there is more interconnection and cross-referencing of data from multiple storage areas in response to a single cue, meaning one has learned rather than memorized..